W m 1 T il ¥ IN STIT UTJE







^ . -- - - Wv ^

- . _ .. _ _ . _ . K

jC /


ft/' 2 f'L






- oVN*?'*'

« 4

Members detaining Books beyond the time allowed will be fined one half-penny for every day sb detained, and have no other Book out of the Library until such fines be paid.

Members are not allowed to have more than One Volume out at a time: nor to exchange Books with one another: nor to lend them out of their houses. Members turning down leaves writing in, or otherwise injuring Books’ will be fined.

j .




22 ./0//^534 j






, 1 I



* ..


•' *

I1rorrfis7?i6c& to

G&lt.Mcu/. VoL.O. ZartZ.







From JANUARY to JUNE 1830.








lion Don :








[Those marked thus * are Vig nettes printed with the letter-press .]


View of the House at Paris, in front of which Henri Quatre was assassinated. .. 9


Plan of a Roman Villa at Pitney, co. Somerset . . . 17

Church and Tower of Dundry, co. Somerset . . . 105

Paintings on Panel from Tavistock Church . 113

^Representation of Capt. Clapperton’s Funeral Ceremony . 132

•Specimens of African Tattooing . . . 161

Alms-Houses at Mitcham, Surrey . . . . . . . . 20 1

Percy Monument at Beverley, co. York . . . 209

Remains of the Inn of the Prior of Lewes, Southwark . 297

Representations of ancient Seals and miscellaneous Antiquities ; viz. Seal of / George Rygmayden, of Tho. Dene, Prior of Exeter ; one found at Winchester, Hoddesden Hospital, and Framlingham Castle ; brass] relic found at Minster

Church, Thanet, t and an earthen vessel found in Ireland . 305

Lambeth Palace, as it appeared in the Autumn of 1829 . 393

•Gate-house of Lambeth Palace . . ..394

Gower’s Monument in St. Saviour’s Church, Southwark . . . 401 .

*Stone Coffin in St. Martin’s Church-yard, Salisbury . . . 407

* Painted Glass at St. Thomas’s Church, Salisbury . 409

Seal of Tavistock Abbey, Betsy Grimbald’s Tower, and Sepulchral Vestiges pre ¬ served at the Vicarage, Tavistock, . . . 489

Wanstead House, Essex . 497

St. John’s Chapel, Walham Green, Fulham . 577

Holy Trinity Church, Brompton, Middlesex . ib>

•Norman Arches in the Chapterhouse of Bristol Cathedral . 609

-j- It has been suggested by a friend, that this is one of those clasps by which books were anciently fastened with a thong; the ring at the end or the hole at the back might be placed on a pin fixed to one of the sides of the book, as required by the bulk or looseness of the contents.

The Binder will please to cancel pp. 531-532 of June Magazine.


A task of greater difficulty has seldom fallen upon the Conductors of a Periodical Publication than that which the Editors of the Gentleman’s Magazine are now called upon to perform, by writing a Preface to the Hundredth Volume of their labours.

On reaching a period in the history of that work, which has very few precedents in the annals of literature, it may be expected from its Editors that they should not merely present to their Patrons and Friends an account of the progress and general contents of the former volumes, and advert to the public and private principles by which all its Conductors have been actuated, but that they should speak of their present plans and resources. Were this, however, all which is in¬ cumbent upon them, they might hope to acquit themselves, if not with credit, at least without disgrace, for to the past they can allude with pride, and to the future with confidence ; but they are aware that it is their duty to state the honest exultation which they naturally feel at the long and un¬ interrupted success which has attended the Magazine, to notice with delicacy the causes which have preserved it from the fate that has at¬ tended so many of its contemporaries, to allude to the grounds upon which they build their hopes that it is destined to survive for another hundred years, and, more than all, to express the deep gratitude with which they are impressed for the assistance of able contributors, and for the large share of patronage by which their exertions have been cheered and rewarded. In adverting to points of so personal a nature, egotism cannot be avoided; but there are occasions when silence as well as speech may have its source in vanity, and if ever a modest allusion to literary services be justifiable, it is when gratitude dictates the assurance that every effort will be used to retain the patronage which those ser¬ vices have acquired.

The able Preface to the General Index to the Gentleman’s Magazine from 1787 to 1818,” contains so satisfactory a history of the work, that it is only necessary to refer to it for an account of its institution and progress, and for the names of the eminent writers who originally con¬ tributed to its pages. But it is desirable to notice briefly the valuable




information upon the most interesting subjects which is scattered through the work, and which, it may be said without vanity, because the fact has been universally admitted, render its numerous volumes a general repository of intelligence a kind of inexhaustible store-house, as it were of materials for History, Antiquities, and Biography, even if Science and Art may not also be included.

The collections for History may be divided into that which is con¬ temporaneous with the respective volumes, and that which relates to much earlier periods. For some time after the commencement of the Magazine, its character was more political than at present; and the volumes were for many years remarkable for the Debates of both Houses of Parliament. To those Debates particular allusion is made, because the Gentleman's Magazine was the lirst Journal that dared to risk the punishment of a breach of the privilege of Parliament, by reporting its proceedings, thus setting the example of enabling Constituents to know how their Representatives speak and act. So important was the pre¬ cedent, that Newspapers soon imitated the plan ; and when more accu¬ rate reports were given by the daily press than the limits of the Magazine rendered possible, the system was adopted of stating in a very abridged form the most material occurrences in Parliament ; but the honour of being the first person who incurred the danger of fearful penalties for printing the Debates, belongs to Cave, the original editor, and which is alone sufficient to entitle his memory to respect.

From the appearance of the first number of this Miscellany to the pre¬ sent time, scarcely a single memorable event, of any kind, domestic or foreign, has occurred of which a notice is not to be found ; and the value of such a general record, either for amusement or for higher purposes, is too obvious to be insisted upon.

To History and Antiquities, and more especially to whatever is con¬ nected with our own country, a large proportion of each volume has been dedicated. Upon various abstruse points in our annals, disserta¬ tions and facts, more or less valuable, occur ; and those who are ac^ quainted with the nature of historical materials can testify to the utility of collecting scattered memorials, many of which, from being local, might not have come to the knowledge of historians but for the publicity thus given to them. In plates and descriptions of Antiquities, by which is meant ancient buildings, carvings, seals, rings, medals, and other remains of former ages, the Magazine is peculiarly rich, it being a common practice for the individuals by whom they were discovered, to transmit accurate drawings of the respective articles, most of which have been fully illustrated by other correspondents. The collection on




this subject may be safely pronounced unrivalled, and forms data for an important volume. On the subsidiaries, or as they are termed handmaids,” of History, namely. Architecture, Heraldry, and Genea¬ logy, as well as in relation to the Arts, and Early Literature, much information may be found; and perhaps one of the most interesting departments is that in which light is thrown on the descent of illustrious families, where their rise, decline, and fall are traced, affording, in many instances, striking examples of the instability of human greatness. The Literary Antiquary has always found a source of amusement and instruc¬ tion in the numerous papers on early writers, particularly Poets, the works of many of whom have been elucidated in the most satisfactory manner.

It is for Biography, however, that the value of the Gentleman s Maga¬ zine is most remarkable. There is scarcely an eminent individual of this Country, about whom some information is not to be obtained ; and it may be said without fear of refutation, that there is not a literary person of the last or present century, whose life could be properly written with¬ out reference to its volumes. Many of their earliest productions are con¬ tained in them, and the poetical niches were often filled with the first aspirations of a Muse, which afterwards soared to the highest pinnacle of fame. Unfortunately the authors of many of the beautiful pieces which occur in the first twenty volumes are not known, but the merit of the articles would justify their being collected and republished, leaving it to critics to assign them to the great names to which they unques¬ tionably belong. The Obituary has long possessed the highest re¬ putation ; and the best evidence of its value is the copious manner in which the statements are transferred to other publications. From Politics the Magazine has gradually receded ; but whenever political opinions are expressed, they indicate an undeviating adherence to Church and State, a warm attachment to the Crown, Laws, Establishments, and Religion of our country, a distrust of theoretical experiments upon what the experience of ages has taught us to reverence, an abhorrence of the fanciful ravings of enthusiasts, religious or political, and a desire to preserve unchanged those Institutions of our forefathers, under which England has acquired the highest renown among nations.

To these remarks on the long series of past volumes, all which will be added is, that their contents are rendered available, and that the scattered information upon any one subject may be instantly collected, by means of the highly valuable Indexes, not only for each year, but which are di¬ gested into five separate volumes, ably classed, and arranged. With this assistance the Gentleman's Magazine forms in itself an Encyclopedia



of almost Universal Knowledge ; a Library of the most rational and de¬ lightful information, upon all which instructs or interests mankind; hanging from Science to Art, from History to Poetry, from the Belles Lettres to Antiquities, and presenting a fund of materials for Biogra¬ phy, which may be drawn upon without fear of exhaustion, and which, from its infinite variety, may be resorted to, either for the acquisition of wisdom, or to divert a tiresome hour, with the certainty of finding some¬ thing we did not know before.

To the various kinds of information, chiefly upon subjects of perma¬ nent interest, which distinguish the Gentleman's Magazine, and to the temperate spirit which has always actuated its Conductors, may be ascribed its having lived in security through the political and personal storms which have wrecked all its rivals, and so many other Journals. Works, which owe their existence to party spirit, or their interest to the bitterness of controversy, generally terminate with the motives that gave them birth ; but a periodical publication, which originated in the desire to perpetuate historical facts, to communicate information in which every literary man is interested, to afford an arena for discussion on all questions excepting those of religion and politics, to record so much of passing events as posterity may desire to know, to prevent the merits of de¬ ceased persons dying with them ; and in which the dryness of historical .. * . -

or critical essays is relieved by Poetry and papers of a lighter and more popular kind, was likely to become, as it has, a permanent and valuable work. That personal feelings should occasionally have been brought into action in the animation of controversy was to be expected ; but on these Occasions the Editors have uniformly endeavoured to sooth rather than to exasperate ; and by firmly refusing to admit a word calculated to in¬ crease animosity, and pouring oil over the agitated waters, they have often had the gratification of preserving friendships, and retaining valua¬ ble Contributors.

Of the future it is always wise to speak with diffidence. The Editors are not insensible to the lamentable change, which, within a few years, has taken place in the literary taste of their countrymen. They cannot be unconscious that the characteristics of the day are, a desire to peruse wffiat amuses, without giving the reader the trouble to think; an impatience to


acquire knowledge without submitting to the necessary labour ; an eager¬ ness for novelty and excitement ; a contempt for historical details, which produces an unwillingness to read the annals of our Country in a more extended form than a volume of the size of Goldsmith’s History of Eng¬ land for Schools;” a belief that language is almost intuitive ; that there is a fashionable, if not a royal road to knowledge ; and that Science, History,



Art, as well as every thing else, may be profoundly acquired by reading one or two small volumes, because they are written by persons of cele¬ brity. That this erroneous taste cannot endure, notwithstanding the zeal with which it is catered for and cherished, is the hope of all who venerate (genuine literature ; but its existence, even for a season, has an influence upon works which aim at encouraging more solid, and it may be said too, more creditable pursuits. In stating this, it is not to be supposed that the Editors are unaware of the real improvements which have taken place in the last century, or of the rapid diffusion of a certain portion of know¬ ledge among the lower orders, the effect of which remains to be seen. But they have alluded to the attraction which is possessed by idle and vapid, if not dangerous novels, and scandalous notices of persons of rank, either under the disguise of fiction, or as memoirs, in which pri¬ vate confidence is shamefully betrayed, in explanation of the difficulty of rendering their future numbers popular, without a total abandonment of the objects of the work. t

That such a change is out of the question need scarcely be said ; and the Editors flatter themselves that their resolution to persevere in the same course, without regarding the corrupt taste of the day, and to endeavour to render the subsequent volumes as useful to posterity as die previous ones are to the present age, will be supported by the long list of Subscribers and able Contributors, to whom they thus publicly, and with the warmest gratitude, tender their respectful thanks.

The most strenuous efforts will be used to increase the Historical value of the Magazine ; and as its columns afford the opportunity of commu¬ nicating discoveries, or making inquiries, to every classical scholar, every investigator of English History and Antiquities, every student of Lite¬ rature, and, indeed, to every one who is able and willing to contribute to the amusement and instruction of his fellow men, it may be confidently hoped that the high reputation of a work which has been enriched by the lucubrations of Johnsqn, and by those of most of the eminent lite¬ rary persons who flourished in the last hundred years, will be preserved, even if it be not increased.

To the interests of the Clergy particular attention has always been paid ; and, as notices of peculiar value to that respectable and numerous body, are to be found in each number, the continuance of their support may be rationally expected.

The Centenary of the Gentleman’s Magazine appears in a new era of British History. It has been the melancholy duty of the Editors to record in its pages the death of George the Fourth, perhaps the most accomplished Monarch that ever sat on the Throne of these Realms,



under whose sway the Empire acquired the most brilliant glory in war, and experienced perfect tranquillity and happiness in peace. But in com¬ mon with the rest of their countrymen they are cheered in their afflic¬ tion by the accession of a Sovereign who possesses to the fullest extent English feelings, English taste, and English habits, qualities dear to every English heart. Throwing aside the pomp, and dismissing the guards, with which custom has long surrounded the royal person, William the Fourth trusts himself among his people ; and sensible that Englishmen love their Monarch, not as a secluded deity, but as a man to whom they can personally offer the homage of their loyalty and attachment, His Majesty gratifies their feelings and his own by fre¬ quently offering himself to their gaze, appearing by this conduct, as well as by every other act since the Crown devolved upon him, to place his happiness in the applause of his subjects.

Reposing the greatest confidence in his Ministers, and treading in the footsteps of his Predecessor, his Majesty justifies our reliance upon his wisdom, firmness, and, above all, upon his desire to do every thing to merit the love of his people. The political atmosphere is con¬ sequently free from clouds to excite alarm ; and the reign of William the Fourth is likely to rival his revered Father’s in popularity, and to be no less distinguished than that of his illustrious Brother.

The Editors flatter themselves that the venerable age which the Gentleman’s Magazine has attained will be considered evidence of its worth, and secure the respect which it has hitherto enjoyed ; that, added to the wisdom and prudence which are ascribed to an honourable senility, the subsequent volumes will exhibit all the vigour of an intellect unimpaired by time, and fully capable of directing the resources at its disposal ; and they close this Preface, by pledging themselves that no labour shall be considered too great to deserve, and that no reward will be deemed so gratifying as to retain, the approbation and support of their numerous Subscribers and Contributors.



London Gazette Times— M. Journal. M. Chronicle-Post M. Ilerald -Ledger M. Ad ver. Courier Globe— Standard Sun-Star— Brit.Trav . Record.— Lit. Gaz. St. James’s Clirou. Weekly Review Cornmer. Chronicle Packet— Even. Mail English Chronicle Courier de Londres 8 Weekly Papers 20 Sunday Papers Bath 4-Berks. -Bei w. Birmingham 2 Blackburn— Bolton Boston— Brighton 3 Bridgwater-Bristol 4 Bury 2— Cambrian Cambridge-CarlisleS Carmarth.— Chelmsf. Chestei field Cheiten.2.-Chest. 2 Colchester-Cornwall Coventry3 Cumberl. Derby 2 —Devon Devonport Devizes Donc.astei -Dorchest. Dorset —Durham 2 Essex- -Ex etc ) 5 Gioucest.—Hants 3

JANUARY, 1830.


Heref. Herts. .Hull 3 Hunts.. Ipswich Kent 4. .Lancaster Learning ton. Lincoln Leeds 3. .Leicester 3 Lichfield. Liverpool MacclesfieldMaidst2 Manchestcr8.Monm. | Newcastle on Tyne 2 Norfolk .Norwich N.Wales.Northamp Nottingham3..0xf 2 Plymouth2.Prestou2 Reading. ..Rochdale Rochester.. Sal isbury Siieffield4. Shrewsb.2 Sherborne. ..Staffor d Staffordsh. Potteries Stamford2 Stockport Suffolk. ..Sussex Taunton. ..Tyne Wakefield ..W arwick West Briton (TrtTro) Western (Exeter) Westmoreland 2 Weymouth Windsor Wo I v e r h a m pto n Wor tester 2. .York 4 Man. ..Jersey 3 Guernsey 3 Scotland 37 Ireland 58

<®ri0inaX <£ontmum cation*?.

Minor Correspondence . 2

On the Dramatic Writers who preceded Shak- speare, and especially of Christ. Marlowe ..3

Dr. Forster on the Medical Profession . 7

Anecdotes of Mr. Garrick and Mr. Parke ... .8'

Assassination of Henry IV. of France . 9

Mr. Upham’s Reply to Mr. Godfrey Higgins

on the character of Muham tried . 10

On Turkish Liberality . 12

Death of Burckhardt . 13

On the Removal of Burial Grounds . 14

Wardmotes in Churches condemned . 16’

On Repairs of Hexham Church . ib.

Roman Villa at Pitney, co. Somerset . 17

Rise and Progress of Stage Coach Travelling 18 (Cemetery of British Officers near Bayonne.. 22 Rev. D. Wilson’s Reply to Rev. Mr. Bowles 23 Errors in Sir W. Scott’s Provincial Antiq.” 24 Progress and Decline of Witchcraft, No. IV. ib. Etymology of Midwife, Man Midwife, &c. ..29

Anecdotes of the Rev. Thos. Hatch . 30

Founder of the Priory at Sandwich? . 31

Inscription in Beaumaris Church . 32


Ketneto of Jficto $uMication£.

Hunt’s Exemplars of Tudor Architecture ..33 Forby’s Vocabulary of East Anglia . 37

Sir W. Scott’s Plistory of Scotland . 40

History of Maritime Discovery . ib.

Montgomery’s Satan, a Poem . . . 42

Flaxman’s Lectures on Sculpture . 43

Memoirs of Simon Bolivar . 48

Private Memoirs of Court of Louis XVIII.. 51

Williams’s Geography of Ancient Asia . 53

Rhind’s Studies of Natural History . 55

Tales of Four Nations . 56'

Foreign Review, No. IX. . . . ib.

Miscellaneous Reviews . 58, 59

Fine Arts . 60

Literary Intelligence. --New Publications 61

Royal Society. Cherokee Indians, &e . 62

Antiquarian Researches . 65

Select Poetry . 68


Foreign News, 70. Domestic Occurrences. . 72 Promotions, &c. 75. Marriages . 76

Obituary; with Memoirs of the Earl of Kellie ; Vise. Harberton ; Gen. Lord Chas. Fitzroy ; Hon. John Coventry; Rev. Sir P. G. Egerton, Bart. ; Sir Rich. Beding- field, Bart. ; Sir J. H. Williams, Bart. Sir R. B. de Capel! Brooke, Bart. ; Sir

Wm. Fowle Middleton, Bart. &c. &c . 77

Bill of Mortality. Markets, 94. Shares.. 95 Meteorological Diary. Prices of Stocks ...96

Embellished with a View of the House in front of which Henrie Quatre was assassinated; And Plan of a Roman Villa at Pitney, co. Somerset.


Printed by J. B. Nichols and Son, Cicero’s Head, 25, Parliament Street, Westminster; where all Letters to the Editor are requested to be sent, Post-Paid.

L 2 ]


Viator observes, In a manuscript at Oxford, written by an acquaintance of Mr. Hampden, Treasurer of the Navy, (grandson of the patriot, and who was living witbin forty years of his ancestor,) it is stated, that John Hampden died of a mortification from the wound received at Chalgrave Field. Comparing this with a statement in your Magazine, and with a report that a princi¬ pal person present at the examination does vot believe the body dug up at Hampden to have been that of the patriot, I cannot but entertain a wish that one or other of the parties present on the occasion alluded to would candidly acknowledge the error into which the narrative so widely circulated has a tendency to lead the public and posterity. The body found, so remarkably perfect as is described, could not have been that of a per¬ son dying as has been related.”

An old Subscriber says, In the new edition of the very neat ‘Annual Peerage,’ the Bishop of Sodor and Mann is stated to be not a Peer of Parliament,’ seem¬ ing to imply that he, like the Scotch and Irish Peers, though not holding a seat in Parliament, is yet a Peer. This, hou'ever, is not the case. The Scotch and Irish Peers may, at any moment, be called by election to a seat in the House of Lords ; but the Bishop of Sodor and Mann could, in no casualty, be so called. In fact, our Bishops sit in Parliament not as Bishops merely, but as Barons by tenure of their lands. The colonial Bishops are, very properly, not styled Lord Bishops by the editor.”

J. S. B. remarks, *‘ It is well knowm that, previously to the Marriage Act in 1754, marriages were solemnized at private Chapels and elsewhere ; that there was a Chapel in Well-walk, another at Knightsbridge, a third in Duke-street, Westminster, &c. &c. where marriages were performed ; and he is de- si i'ous of learning where the Registers of these Marriages are now to be found. That of Duke-street is known to be in private hands, and so perhaps are many others ; but as they no doubt contain entries of Mar¬ riages and Baptisms, the proof of which may be frequently required, it is requested that those of your readers, who can give in¬ telligence of any of them, will have the goodness to do so.”

Mr. T. J. Brockett writes, “I am per¬ fectly satisfied with Mr. Broughton’s expla¬ nation (p. 488). I unfortunately still retain my original opinion as to the use of the word fool; hut whether I am correct or not must be left to the determination of others. In compiling a Local Glossary, it is very difficult to decide on the insertion or omission of the different provincial words that present

themselves. The plan suggested by Mr. Broughton, even if practicable, would not, I fear, remove the perplexity. I hail with pleasure the prospect which is held out to us of a Staffordshire Glossary.”

Mr. Carpenter, in reference to our re¬ view of his Scripture Difficulties,” (De¬ cember, p. 522,) replies, I should have thought it impossible for any person to fail in attributing the remarks on 1 Cor. vi. to their real author, considering the mode in which I have introduced them : The ob¬ scurity of this passage has given birth to numerous conjectures as to the meaning of the apostle, which are thus ably summed up by Mr. Bloomfield.’ Then follows Mr. Bloomfield’s note, at the close of which is a direct reference to Bloomfield in loco.”

A Correspondent inquires for “parti¬ culars relative to Captain Pretty, who is thus mentioned in Clarendon’s Memoirs, vol. II. pt. 1, p. 6, viz. * eight full troops of horse under the command of Captain Pretty.’ He is probably the same person who is mentioned in the critical review of the State Trials as Colonel Pretty at the Castle of Dublin in 1649. See Trial of the Regicides. There is a pedigree in the He- raltls’-offiee of a family of the name, seated for many generations at Medborne (query in what county ?) the chief branch of which terminates in an heiress, who married into the family of Porter.”

C. S. B. says, About the period of the expulsion of the Jesuits from France (1764), there were books publicly burnt at Paris, the productions of Bassambaum, Saurez, and Molina. The object of this inquiry is to ascertain the exact date of this transaction, as it would probably throw light on the much debated question of who was the au¬ thor of Junius?

Our Correspondent in Dec. p. 499, who is anxious for some information respecting the square piece worn on the chest by the war¬ riors in the Bayeux Tapestry, is referred to vol. I. of Dr. Meyrick’s Critical Inquiry, where he will find what he seeks.

If our Correspondent the Tourist, who writes from Bath, lias more in reserve for us, we shall be glad to receive it, in order to give a longer portion at a time.

We beg to acknowledge the receipt of a communication from Candidus, for which we are obliged. We think, however, that we may not have the opportunity afforded us, of adopting his suggestions.

H. R. D. is informed, that the MS. from which he has found the quotation is the same as was printed in the 20th volume of Ar- chseologia, and is now well known to anti¬ quaries.



JANUARY, 1830.



Mr. Urban,

Staffordshire Moor¬ lands, Jan. g.

FEW periods of theatric history are more interesting, few present more copious materials for amusing narrative, yet none have been less carefully enquired into, than that com¬ prised between the commencement of Elizabeth’s reign and the appearance of Shakspeare on the scene tiie in¬ terval between the first faint dawning of our dramatic day and its arrival at meridian splendour. Incidental allu¬ sions to the principal individuals who then wrote for the theatre are scattered through various works ; but a collec¬ tion of those notices, with a disserta¬ tion upon the character of their writ¬ ings, continues to be a desideratum. It has indeed been id ly enough assert¬ ed by many authors, and implicitly believed by their readers, that till Shakspeare shed the lustre of his genius upon the stage, it was in a state of utter barbarism ; that it possessed no compositions worthy a moment’s attention; and that he not only ele¬ vated our drama to an unequalled pitch of excellence, but was actually its founder, its inventor, or, to use their favourite expression, “its crea¬ tor.’’ Nothing, however, can be fur¬ ther from the truth. When Shak¬ speare first arrived in London, a friendless unknown lad, the occupa¬ tion of writing for the stage was en¬ grossed, not by tasteless, obscure scrib¬ blers, but by men of wit and fancy, most of whom had received the ad¬ vantage of a college education, and who, by the composition of plays adapted to the popular taste, had made the amusement of the theatre so at¬ tractive as to render their craft a most lucrative employment. Instead of de¬ rogating from Shakspeare’s due cele¬ brity, it appears to me that few things

tend more strikingly to enhance it than the circumstance that by the magic of his unaided talents he outdid the achievements of this formidable phalanx, mastered them at their own weapons, and tore from their brows the wreath of popularity which they wore so proudly. Alone he did it !” and in the course of this article will be shewn with what bitterness of feeling they regarded his triumph.

The year 1580 may pretty safely be fixed upon as the period when English dramatic poetry began to assume a settled form, and to be composed in some degree according to definite rules; for previous to this time little had ap¬ peared upon the stage but tedious puerilities or low buffooneries, put together in a style of congenial rude¬ ness, “wild without rule or art.” In the interval, however, which elapsed before Shakspeare commenced writing, numerous plays were produced by Peele, Nash, Lodge, Greene, and Marlowe, which, inferior as they may be to Shakspeare’s, (and what dra¬ mas are not so?) belong to precisely the same school, and completely nul¬ lify the assertion that he was the ori¬ ginator of what is styled our Romantic Drama. A collection of these rare pieces would be an invaluable addi¬ tion to our literature; while a narra¬ tive of what is known respecting their witty but profligate authors, their quarrels with their contemporaries, their shifts and expedients to maintain a precarious existence, their dissolute lives, and for the chief part miserable ends, would form a most amusing and instructive composition. The works of two of them, Peele and Marlowe, have recently been reprinted ; the former I have not seen, and can therefore offer no opinion upon the manner in which the task has been executed ; but of


Life and Writings of

the works of Marlowe I must say that, though the editor is entitled to infinite praise for thus placing within the reach of every one what was pre¬ viously accessible to but few, he has slurred over with a provoking degree of carelessness and brevity that part of his duty which required from him some account of his author, and the state of the theatre in his time. This omission it is the object of the present paper in some measure to supply. The facts it details were collected long be¬ fore the appearance of the edition in question, with the view to a similar performance, and may perchance be found useful, should a reprint be called for, or such a collection as 1 have sug¬ gested above be ever undertaken. A mere outline of them was printed some eight or ten years since, in a work relating to the stage ; but, as it was of very limited circulation, and has long been defunct, I look upon them, as Coleridge says, to be “as good as manuscript.”

The plays and poems of Marlowe cannot fail to excite, in the mind of every intelligent reader, a high opinion of his genius ; but the curiosity which will naturally be felt regarding the events of his life must solace itself with very slender materials. Beyond the bare fact of his existence, little has descended to us, and even that little will scarcely abide the test of a close enquiry into its truth. Of him, as of the poet’s ship, may almost be said

The sole memorial of his lot Is this he was, and he is not.”

The current tale respecting him, which the compiler of every biogra- hical dictionary and cyclopedia has een content to copy from his imme¬ diate predecessor with confiding care¬ lessness, is this : that he was born about 1562 ; was entered of Bene’t Coll. Cambridge, where he took the degrees of B. A. 1583, and M.A. 158? ; that on quilting the University he repaired to London, became a cele¬ brated actor and dramatist, ran a disso¬ lute career, published some blasphe¬ mous works oppugning the doctrine of the Trinity, and lost his life at last in a lewd quarrel,” either with Ben Jon- son or “a baudie servingman,” about a harlot ; but the reader, who has doubtless often seen this libel confi¬ dently detailed in the Biographia Dramatica,” and books of that stamp.

Christopher Marlowe. [Jan.

will be surprised to learn that every circumstance here related of Marlowe, is, to say the least, uncertain, save that of his being a popular writer, and being slain in a broil, which, how¬ ever, was neither with Ben Jonso.t, nor about a wench.

In the first place, the date of his birth is entirely matter of conjecture. Malone* hazarded an opinion that it was 1565 ; Ellis (“ Specimens’’) taking for a guide the period at which he is thought to have entered the Univer¬ sity, supposes that he must then have been about eighteen years of age, which may be probable enough, but still is merely surmise ; while Oldys (MS. Notes on Langbaine) asserts that he was born in the early part of the reign of Edw. VI., a supposition neither plausible nor probable. In fact, of Marlowe’s age and origin no¬ thing can be told with certainty. Not even conjecture has busied itself with the latter, and I confess myself unable to throw any light upon the subject, unless indeed a passage in Wood’s Athenae’’ may be considered as af¬ fording some clue towards a solution of the mystery. At p. 216, fob 1721, I find mention made of one “John Marlowe, of Merton College, Oxford, afterwards Treasurer of the Cathedral Church of Weils, and Canon of the King’s Chapel of St. Stephen’s, within the Palace at Westminster, who died in the beginning of October, 154.3.” The name of Marlowe is but of rare occurrence, and it is therefore no very extravagant surmise that this might be the poet’s grandfather.

That Marlowe was ever a member of Bene’t Coll., though it has been so positively asserted, is also very ques¬ tionable. With whom tire circum¬ stantial detail of his progress at the University originated I have never been able precisely to trace, but I suspect there is no earlier authority for it than the MS. notes of Oldys, Baker, the original compiler of the Biographia Dramatica,” borrowing his account of Marlowe from Ant. Wood, merely says it is well-known that he was entered